Poultry farming is a common business many people now do in Nigeria to make money.
Poultry farming is the process of raising various domestic birds together with the eggs for sale, and household consumption.
These domestic birds include chicken, turkey, geese, ducks, etc.
Poultry farm does not require a huge capital to start as you can start the business at home if you have enough space in your compound that can contain the number of birds that you desire.
This business could be considered as one of the most lucrative agricultural business ideas in Nigeria today.
Nigeria’s poultry industry is worth over N1.2trillion as at 2017. It is one of the fastest growing segment in agricultural industry in Nigeria.
This could be viewed from the fact that the demand for livestock products, including poultry is on the increase and fast expanding in Nigeria and Africa as a result of the population growth and increase in urbanisation.
The Nigerian poultry sector is largely made up with most of the chicken raised in ‘backyards’ or on poultry farms with less than 1,000 birds.
From the market size perspective, Nigeria’s egg production is the largest in Africa followed by South Africa.
The banning of chicken importation in Nigeria in the year 2003 (with the exception of day-old chicks) encouraged the growth of domestic poultry production.
Chicken is the most common among all the kinds of poultry farming (turkey, geese, ducks, etc). Farmers get a great number of chickens regularly with either the egg for food or the chicken for meat.
The high demand for chicken and egg in Nigeria market and homes has made poultry farming a very lucrative business which it’s also a good source of animal protein outside fish, pork and beef.
How to start poultry farming business in Nigeria
Below are steps to start profitable poultry farming business in Nigeria:
1. Make a choice of poultry bird to rear
It is important for you to know the type of poultry breeds to rear (most importantly, poultry breeds that lay a lot of eggs), before you you kick start your poultry farming venture.
Apart from the locally grown chickens, there are two major breeds that are common among poultry farmers in Nigeria today. They are:
Broilers: Broilers grow from a hatch weight of 40kg to a weigh of approximately 1.5 to 2g within 6weeks only. They are often raised for meat both male and female.
Layers: These are hens used for commercial egg production and later killed for their meat. They start laying eggs at the age of 18-19 weeks and continue until they are 72-78 weeks of age. Layer chickens are mostly raised from old day old.
Cockerels: Cockerels grow very slow unlike the broilers that grow very fast. They can survive in many environments. Cockerels just like the broilers are also for meat production and have a special market demand.
2. Find a good farm location or site
To start poultry farming, you need a good farm site. The place of location of your poultry farm is very important.
If you have enough land at your backyard and may not be able to get a new site, it’s always better to start small.
This is because the size of the poultry farmland should always be determined by the number of birds you want to rear. You can start with a small number but make sure to get a better farm as soon as you can afford it.
A good poultry farm should be calm and free from polluted environment. Let it be away from busy cities and from noise.
It must also be free from predators like hawk, fox, and leopards. Must have adequate clean and fresh drinking source of water around.
The site should be easily accessible with good roads so as to ease the transportation of farm products when they are ready for sale.
3. Construct conducive pen for the birds
Housing is the next important factor in poultry farming. A good pen is vital for protection and survival of your commercial poultry birds.
Housing design varies in accordance with various types of poultry rearing methods. It depends largely on the poultry breeds and farming method.
The pen should be constructed to have enough space which will permit free movement and running of the birds.
Shelter must be well built to avoid the risk of flooding. To add to it, there should be enough ventilation and be protected from sunlight.
4. Feeding and Medication of the Birds
Your birds need not lack water. Lack of adequate water supply can stunt their growth. Good quality and highly nutritious food is a must for commercial poultry production.
Quality and neat feeds keep the birds healthy always and productive. The feed must be kept clean and dry always as contaminated feed can infect your birds.
There are various routine medications and vaccinations that help towards the healthiness of your birds to keep them safe from viruses and bacteria infections, in case they catch an infectious diseases.
You need to have a veterinary doctor that will often check on your birds when the need arises. Do not forget that proper medication and vaccination can prevent many poultry diseases.
Do not be caught up in the operational aspect of your business so much that you ignore the sales aspect.
Poultry farming is a very profitable business and every poultry farmer desires to make good sales after rearing their birds.
So you need to pay attention to the marketing and sales aspect of your business.
You can follow these simple guide below to help you market and sale your chicken.
- Take your business online.
- Sell and supply to restaurants and hotels.
- Advertise your products.
- Include home delivery.
- Employ marketers.
Amount needed to start poultry farming business
Most new businesses require a huge capital layout which is not affordable by most business owners.
An average startup business sometimes takes a long time to produce a good return on your investments.
A small-scale poultry business requires a low capital to start up and with rapid profit return.
A little capital of N50,000 can get you started. This can cover the cost of buying the day-old chicks and feeding them and then expect a 100% profit on your investment within six months.
It takes only 21 days for chicks to hatch. You can start earning an income within three weeks of starting. You barely come across this kind of business that generates such a good profit.
Most entrepreneurs prefer to begin with day-old chicks and sell them to growers (people who buy day-old chicks and rear to maturity), as this option is easier and less risky. It is your choice to make.
You need to get your business finances right from the beginning. The main point of opportunities in this profitable poultry farming business are platforms such as our online invoicing software that helps you to keep proper track of your business revenues and expenses with ease.
Commercial poultry farming in Nigeria has created and still creating a profitable business opportunity for entrepreneurs and can be a source of employment for job seekers.