How To Start Fish Farming Business in Nigeria

All over the world there are thousands of fish in the water but not all of them are reared and used for business because of their nature, or because of the rate at which they are demanded. Fish live in water naturally such as a river but they can still be reared for commercial purposes.  In this post, you will learn how to start fish farming business in Nigeria.

Fish farming is the act of rearing, breeding, and taking care of fish using artificial means such as ponds, tanks or tarpaulins until they grow and ready for consumption. Most often, it’s referred to as pisciculture.

Pisciculture is the means by which we grow fish at home for consumption.

There are two different ways of growing fish which are:

  • Extensive aquaculture: This is the process of growing fish under natural water such as a river or stream.
  • Intensive aquaculture: This is the process of growing fish in ponds, tanks or tarpaulins and feeding them artificially.

We will be discussing the Intensive aquaculture because it is the easiest form of commercial fish farming in Nigeria.

There are many species of fish in the water and as a beginner in fish farming business you may want to know the type of fish that will yield reasonable profit in Nigeria.

The most common fish species to grow for business or commercial purpose are; mackerel, salmon, tilapia and catfish. Catfish and tilapia is the most common species in Nigerian fish market because of;

a)Their ability to adapt to a change in climate and geographical location. Just as climate and location affects livestock and plants (crops) so as it affects fish. Just as most plants or animals can not be reared in certain places so is the same with a fish.

b). The rate at which they grow. Choose the fish that will grow fast to meet your business plan and market demand. Fish grows quick and can be sold within six-eight months.

c)The rate at which they are demanded in the market. Fish are good for human consumption but not all are demanded.

What are the most profitable fish for business in Nigeria

The most profitable fish to grow in Nigeria is any fish that can survive in our climate, able to grow fast and loved by Nigerian fish consumers. Therefore, Catfish and Tilapia are the most profitable fish in Nigeria because they can survive in Nigerian climate, grow fast and liked by fish consumers.

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How To Start Fish Farming Business in Nigeria

How to start fish farming business in Nigeria

Below are the step-by-step guide to start Fish Farming Business in Nigeria either in a small scale fish farm or a large commercial fish farm.

1. The Location of your fish farm

Having a good location for your Fish farming Business is very important. But before you choose the right place to set up your fish farm, you need to decide on the size of your fish farm. Either a small scale fish farm or a big scale fish farm. With this in mind you will be able to select a good location for your fish farm. No matter the size of your fish farm, it should be easily accessible. Setting up your fish farm nearest to a populated area such as a market is an advantage for your business to grow. You can buy or rent and an area where you can build a concrete ponds. You really don’t have to rent; if your home is big enough, you can start a fish farm.

2. Source of water

This is the most important thing you need to remember because you will need to change the water in the fish pond regularly. A clean water also contribute to the healthy growth and productivity of the fishes. The fishes need to be in a place where there is constant or a regular supply of water. if there is no water the fish dies.

3. The right fish housing system

This depends on the size of your fish farm. It could be a pond, plastic tank or tarpaulin. If you are starting on a small scale maybe in your backyard, then you can use a plastic tank or tarpaulin. But if you intend starting on a large scale, then you will need to consider the size of the pond. Fish ponds comes in various size and at a different cost. Remember just as we humans, fish need a conducive and comfortable environment to strive. There should be enough space for the fish to swim. They should not be too clustered therefore you need to know the quantity of fish that will be enough for a particular tank or pond.

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4. The right species of fish

This is the next stage in starting a fish farm. You need to choose the right type of fish that will develop in time and yield enough profit when sold. It could be a catfish, Tilapia, or Mackerel depending on the growth and market demand of the fish.

5. Healthy fingerling or baby fish

When starting a fish farm it is advisable to acquire fishes at the Juvenile stage and from a good fish hatchery to avoid getting unhealthy juvenile and to reduce the mortality rate that may occur during the early stage. There are fish farmers that specialize in hatching fingerlings and selling juveniles. The Fry as they are called which is the developing stage of the fish after they have passed the larvae stage at an age of less than a week. Fingerlings are baby fishes which is the developing stage of the fish after the fry stage, growing into the first three to four months of life. Juvenile which is the developing stage of a fish after fingerling. Yearling which is the developing stage of fish after the fingerling stage and growing up to one year of age.

6. Fish feeds and mode of feeding

As a fish farmer, the quality and quantity of fish feed must be taken into consideration. To ensure a healthy and speedy growth of the fishes, you need to feed them well with quality feed. Fish feed can be group into three:

Natural fish feed which is gotten naturally in the pond. They include worms, snails, detritus, bacteria, plankton, insects and aquatic plant. Most fish eat other fishes especially when they are hungry.

Supplementary fish feed. They include kitchen wastes or agricultural by-products.

Complete feed. This feed are carefully made by experts who knows the right ingredients for fish. They contain good ingredient and nutrients. They can be gotten from stores that deal mainly on fish products.

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7. Market your fish before they develop

Many people wait for the fishes to grow and mature before they create awareness about their business. The early you market your business the better to increase sales. There will be customers waiting in line to purchase from you. Even before they fully mature, they are already sold.

8. Have a business mind set

To succeed as a fish farmer, you need to see your fish farm as a business enterprise. Think of your fish farm as a job and as a source of employment. There are many factors to consider if you want to develop your fish farm into a business such as your location (how near your fish farm to the market), selling price in your market, the competition in your market, season of the year, your business skills and so on. All these contributes to how far your business grows. Approach companies or business entities such as a restaurant, hotel and so on that are always in need of fish. Make them know about your fish farm.

9. Get a training on fish farming

To be successful, you need to gain more knowledge on fish farming business. Attend seminars and read books on business to equip your mind with the various skills and ideas you need to succeed. With the help of this guide, you can start a fish farm in your locality. You need to be patience, give it your time and care then it will grow into a huge establishment.

Quick view on how to start fish farming business

1. The location for your fish farm

2. Source of water

3. The right fish housing system

4. The right species of fish

5. Healthy fingerling or baby fish

6. Fish feeds and mode of feeding

7. Market your fish before they develop

8. Have a business mind set

9. Get a training on fish farming.

Conclusion

The most common fish to farm and make money in Nigeria are Catfish and Tilapia. To make money on fish farming business, you need adequate training which you can get easily get online. You can purchase our video training at $10 or N3,500 if you are in Nigeria.

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