Pig farming is an aspect of animal husbandry that deals in rearing of pigs. It is also known as piggery. Pig farming is making huge money for investors and entrepreneurs everyday.
Pig farming is a sure way to daily cash flow, this means that if you are into this business you will never lack cash or run out of money.
This can be deduced from the fact that pig meat or pork meat as it’s generally known is always on demand and sells faster in the market. Thus, the profit and gain. Also, pigs grow fast and give birth to large number of piglets.
A pig can give birth to up to 15 piglets at a time, which makes it one of the largest reproducing livestock in the world. Piglet, farrow or shoat are used to refer to baby pigs.
A female pig is called sows while the male pig is known as boar. If in a group they are known as herds or drove.
Even though there is huge profit in pig farming, so many Nigerians have refused to take cognisance of this great opportunity to make money because of the nature of the business.
Some see this business as a low life business while some are not committed in it because they feel it is not a big business.
But the truth of the matter is that there is money in pig farming. If you go into this business, you are sure of a big gain in return.
A mature pig costs as high as N30,000 depending on the weight of the pig. Now think of rearing hundred pigs to maturity in a year. Up to N3million will be smiling at you.
Considering how fast pigs reproduce, it would not take much to come up with more than 100 pigs a year. If you can take it higher, let’s say 200 pigs in a year, you will be slamming up to N60million in a year.
How to start profitable pig farming in Nigeria
Below are steps to start profitable pig farming business in Nigeria;
1. Find a ground for breeding
Land is the biggest investment in this business, once you have it, you are half way done. You can get a plot of land for a small scale depending on how you plan to rear your pigs.
You can acquire a large farm land (from 5 acres) so that your pigs can graze in the open and retire to their pen where they could continue feeding and playing.
Land in the rural areas are cheaper. You can get a good and affordable land at a cheaper rate in this area. An acre of land in a rural area can cost at most 200,000 multiplied by how many acres you want.
You can rear your pigs here and transport them for sell in town. As time goes on buyers or butchers will come over to your farm to patronise you and so reduce the stress and costs of transportation.
It is a good rearing technique to allow your farm animals to root around occasionally in a better pasture to feed.
But this can be achieved if you have a large farm land or field where your pigs can find a good pasture. You should watch over them as they grow so that they wouldn’t stray.
2. Erect a conducive pen
A good and spacious pen is important to keep your pigs healthy and free from contamination. This will reduce the risk of injury for your pigs.
A conducive pen deserves proper drainage to avoid flood or stagnant water in your pen which could attract harmful pest attacking your pigs.
This needs the service of an expert to construct a comfortable pen for your pigs.
Pigs are known for their dirtiness. To keep your pigs clean and avoid being overly dirty, you need to provide clean pool where your pigs can swim as they like dipping their body in water to cool which is good for their well being.
It is a healthy practice to change the pool water frequently if you want your pigs to be clean always. Provide a good shelter for them if you prefer keeping them outdoor.
3. Go for healthy piglets
Make sure the Piglets you want to start with have history of vaccination and thereby not susceptible to diseases.
To ensure a healthy pig farm, you need to make sure your purchased piglets are healthy. Buy from trusted owners.
You can buy a considerable number of piglets but don’t start with too many of them.
It is better to start your pig farming with a few number of piglets to increase gradually.
In doing this, you will be able to learn the business as it gradually grow, so the risk will be minimal if anything should go wrong at the initial stage.
4. Seek the advise of a veterinary doctor
Pigs feed as human beings do. They eat the food that humans eat. So there is no worry in terms of feeding.
But you need the service of veterinary doctor for regular checkup and vaccination as well as feeding and nutritional advise.
5. Get workers
If you are starting in small scale, you need to employ workers like 1-2 who will be assisting you in cleaning the pens, feeding the pigs and making sure they are well behaved and other things necessary.
If you are starting in a bigger way with up to 100 pigs, then you need to employ about 4-5 persons to make the work easier and lesser.
6. Feeding your pigs
Feeding is very important in pig farming. Just like other mammals, pigs need balanced diet such as fibre, energy, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals to grow.
Pigs eat a wide variety of foods, they eat any human food. Feed is the major expenditure in pig farming.
Pigs should have access to clean fresh water just like other farm animals. Pigs can tip the trough to make a wallow. They can also stand in the trough to wash their dirty faces in it.
Therefore, the water in the trough need to be regularly checked, cleaned and refilled.
Troughs built in galvanised form are robust, easy to clean and not too easy for the pigs to tip over.
Although automatic drinkers are available, they are not half as much fun for the pigs.
When all these are set, your business is as good as started and your profit making has just kicked off.
There is much happiness in engaging in a profitable business and pig farming is one of such business. All you just need to do is to feed and take proper care of them and then watch them multiply in number.